This page contains the findings of systematic reviews undertaken by review groups linked to the EPPI-Centre
Students' life experiences
- The quality of dialogue and discourse is central to learning in citizenship education; these are connected with learning about shared values, human rights and issues of justice and equality. A facilitative, conversational pedagogy may challenge existing power/ authority structures; transformative, dialogical and participatory pedagogies complement and sustain achievement rather than divert attention from it. Such pedagogies require a quality of teacher-pupil relationships that is inclusive and respectful.,
- Such pedagogies can enhance students' learning, achievement and communication skills, including higher-order cognitive and intellectual achievements and meta-cognitive processes. They can result in a move from concrete literal thinking to abstract and scientific thinking, resulting in higher levels of reflection.
- Listening to the voice of the student leads to positive relationships, an atmosphere of trust and increased participation. It may require many teachers to 'let go of control'.,
- Such pedagogies may empower students, leading to increased self-confidence, more positive self-concept and greater self-reliance; they can engage learners as whole persons and may result in teachers relating differently to students.
- Citizenship education can be applied to most areas of the curriculum through the development of learner-centred teaching and meaningful curricula. Opportunities should be made for students to engage with values issues embedded in all curriculum subjects and experiences.
Students' life experiences
- Students should be empowered to voice their views and to name and make meaning from their life experiences.,
- Engagement of students in citizenship education requires educational experiences that are challenging, attainable and relevant to students' lives and narratives. This may also lead to greater participation in classes.
- Contextual knowledge and problem-based thinking can lead to (citizenship) engagement and action.
- A coherent whole-school strategy, including a community-owned values framework, is a key part of leadership for citizenship education.
- Participative and democratic processes in school leadership require particular attitudes and skills on the part of teachers and students. Strategies for consensual change have to be identified by, and developed in, educational leaders.
- Schools often restrict participation by students in shaping institutional practices but expect them to adhere to policies, and this can be counterproductive to the core messages of citizenship education.
- Teachers require support to develop appropriate professional skills to engage in discourse and dialogue to facilitate citizenship education.,
1. A systematic review of the impact of citizenship education on the provision of schooling (2004)
2. A systematic review of the impact of citizenship education on student learning and achievement (2005)